(Wolves) would cause severe detriment to local and statewide livestock producers. In a study of wolves in Montana, Idaho and Wyoming, conducted by Elizabeth Bradley of the University of Montana, she found significant depredation in wolf packs with livestock present. Between 1993-2002 she found that the depredation rates ranged from 20-71 percent when wolves had livestock present in their territory. The most common period for wolves to depredate livestock is the summer grazing period. Twentyfour percent occur during the spring, and 11 percent occur during the winter season. Cattle depredations peak in August and September. Oregon State University found that proximity to roads or humans did not appear to have any effect on the wolf-cattle interaction or wolf depredations — human presence was not deterrence for depredation.

Compensation for lost livestock has not been a success in other states. In Oregon, for example, Jason Barber, Oregon Department of Agriculture Weights and Measures administrator states that, “All counties use multiple indices, including auction prices, to determine what the market value is at the time. But there are probably indirect costs to the ranchers that the system will never capture."

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